Is there analogy between quantized vortex and black hole?
Abstract
An attempt is made to promote an analogy between quantized vortex in condensed matter and black hole: both compact objects have fermion zero modes which induce the finite temperature of these objects. The motion of the quantized vortex lines in Fermi superfluids and superconductors leads to the spectral flow of fermion zero mode. This results in finite temperature and entropy of the moving vortex. The tunneling transition rate between the fermionic levels under the influence of the vortex motion suggests the effective temperature of the vortex core $T_{\rm eff}=(2/\pi) p_Fv_L$, where $v_L$ is the velocity of the vortex with respect to the heat bath reference frame and $p_F$ the Fermi momentum. This is an analogue of the Unruh temperature of the accelerating object in the relativistic system. For the vortex ring with the radius $R$ this leads to the Hawking type temperature $T_{\rm vortex~ring}=(\hbar v_F / 2\pi R) \ln (R/r_c)$, where $v_F$ is the Fermi velocity and $r_c$ is the radius of the vortex core. The corresponding "Hawking" entropy of the vortex ring of radius $R$ and area $A=\pi R^2$ appears to be ${\cal S}_{\rm vortex ~ring}=(1/6) A p_F^2$. Similar expression but with different numerical factor is obtained for the instanton action for the quantum nucleation of the vortex loop from the homogeneous vacuum, and also for the "Bekenstein" entropy obtained by counting the number of fermionic bound states which appear when the vortex loop is created. For the superfluid $^3$HeA, where some components of the order parameter play the part of the gravitational field, the Fermi momentum $p_F$ corresponds to the Planck scale for this effective gravity. The effective action for the gravity field is obtained after integration over the fermion fields in correspondence with the Sakharov
 Publication:

arXiv eprints
 Pub Date:
 October 1995
 DOI:
 10.48550/arXiv.grqc/9510001
 arXiv:
 arXiv:grqc/9510001
 Bibcode:
 1995gr.qc....10001V
 Keywords:

 General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology
 EPrint:
 Revised to improve clarity and physical content 27 pages, LaTeX file, 3 figures are available at ftp://boojum.hut.fi/pub/publications/lowtemp/LTL95006.ps