Adaptive Resonance Imaging and All-Optical Atom Interferometry
In this dissertation, we demonstrate for the first time an atom interferometer using all-optical transmission gratings. In this interferometer, samarium atoms in a supersonic beam cross two resonant 20 mu m period optical standing waves, which function as atomic transmission gratings. A 20 mu m period atomic interference pattern rephases downstream from the second grating. An important new feature of this dissertation is that for the first time resonance imaging techniques are employed to measure atomic interference patterns. For the resonance imaging method, a high magnetic field gradient correlates the atomic resonance frequency with the atomic position. We obtain for our experimental conditions a spatial resolution of about 3 mu m, which is adequate for measuring the 20 μm period interference pattern. For these experiments, we explore a new feature of the resonance imaging technique, which we denote as adaptive resonance imaging. Using adaptive resonance imaging, the shape of the imaging region which samples the atomic spatial distribution is modified by manipulating the frequency distribution of the transition-inducing fields in the atom frame of reference. In the first application of this method, atomic interference patterns are imaged using either a narrow gaussian sampling region or a spatially periodic sampling region which has been matched to the period of the interference pattern. Using a periodic sampling region demonstrates the versatility of the resonance imaging technique and improves the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the number of atoms sampled during the measurement. The adaptive resonance imaging method is capable of resolving peak-to -peak interference fringe depths less than 1%.
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- Physics: Atomic; Physics: Optics