X-ray wavelength lasers are now being developed by many groups throughout the world. Wavelengths can now be routinely produced from 3.5 to 45 nm, output power can be as high as 100 MW, bandwidth is typically 5 × 10 -5, pulselengths from 10 ps to many ns and nearly full spatial coherence has been achieved. Very recently, compact laser-pumped and capillary discharge-pumped XUV lasers have been demonstrated, paving the way to "table-top" systems. Shorter wavelength X-ray lasers are now produced at large glass laser facilities, but recent progress in X-ray laser pumping efficiency plus the design of compact, high-average-power glass laser systems now make it possible to make high repetition rate X-ray laser facilities that fit into a small space and can be relatively low cost. Finally, I will review some of the applications that are being performed with the unique characteristics of the X-ray laser being used as the source.