Chronic hyperhydration and hematological changes in trained subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity
The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on the hemoglobin content of endurance trained athletes during hypokinesia (decreased number of steps from 10,000 to 3000 steps per day). The studies were performed on 30 long-distance runners who had a VO 2max average of 66 ml kg -1 min -1 and were in the age range of 19-24 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia (HK) of 364 days, all volunteers were on an average of 10,000 steps per day. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the first group underwent normal ambulatory life (control subjects), the second group was kept under continuous restriction of motor activity (hypokinetic subjects) and the third group was placed under continuous restriction of motor activity and consumed 26 ml water kg -1 body weight daily and 0.1 g sodium chloride kg -1 body weight in the form of supplementation (hyperhydrated subjects). For simulation of the hypokinetic effect, the number of steps taken per day by the second and third groups of volunteers was restricted to an average of 3000. During the hypokinetic period we determined reticulocytes (Rt), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), plasma volume (PV), red blood cell (RBC) mass and VO 2max. In hyperhydrated volunteers the content of Hb and Hct decreased significantly, while PV, RBC mass and Rt count increased significantly. In hypokinetic volunteers Hb and Hct increased, while PV, RBC and Rt decreased significantly. It was concluded that chronic hyperhydration may be used to attentuate an increase in the Hb content of physically conditioned subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.