Bruton tyrosine kinase (EC 188.8.131.52) [Btk, encoded by Btk in mice and BTK in humans (formerly known as atk, BPK, or emb)], which is variously mutated in chromosome X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients and X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice, has the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain at its amino terminus. The PH domain of Btk expressed as a bacterial fusion protein directly interacts with protein kinase C in mast cell lysates. Evidence was obtained that Btk is physically associated with protein kinase C in intact murine mast cells as well. Both Ca(2+)-dependent (alpha, beta I, and beta II) and Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase C isoforms (epsilon and zeta) in mast cells interact with the PH domain of Btk in vitro, and protein kinase C beta I is associated with Btk in vivo. Btk served as a substrate of protein kinase C, and its enzymatic activity was down-regulated by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of protein kinase C with pharmacological agents resulted in an enhancement of the tyrosine phosphorylation of Btk induced by mast cell activation.