Models for Venusian mountain belt formation are important for understanding planetary geodynamic mechanisms. A range of data sets at various scales must be considered in geodynamic modelling. Long wavelength data, such as gravity and geoid to topography ratios, need constraints from smaller-scale observations of the surface. Pre-Magellan images of the Venusian surface were not of high enough resolution to observe details of surface deformation. High-resolution Magellan images of Maxwell Montes and the other deformation belts allow us to determine the nature of surfce deformation. With these images we can begin to understand the constraints that surface deformation places on planetary dynamic models. Maxwell Montes and three other deformation belts (Akna, Freyja, and Danu montes) surround the highland plateau Lakshmi Planum in Venus, northern hemisphere.Maxwell, the highest of these belts, stands 11 km above mean planetary radius. We present a detailed structural and kinematic study of Maxwell Montes. Key observations include (1) dominant structural fabrics are broadly distributed and show little change in spacing relative to elevation changes of several kilometers; (2) the spacing, wavelength, and inferred amplitude of mapped structures are small, (3) interpreted extensional structures occur only in areas of steep slope, with no extension at the highest topographic levels; and (4) deformation terminates abruptly at the base of steep slopes. One implication of these observations is that topography is independent of thin-skinned, broadly distributed, Maxwell deformation. Maxwell is apparently stable, with no observed extensional collapse. We propose a ``deformation-from-below'' model for Maxwell, in which the crust deforms passively over structurally imbricated and thickened lower crust. This model may have implications for the other deformation belts.