An approach to black hole quantization is proposed wherein it is assumed that quantum coherence is preserved. A consequence of this is that the Penrose diagram describing gravitational collapse will show the same topological structure as flat Minkowski space. After giving our motivations for such a quantization procedure we formulate the background field approximation, in which particles are divided into "hard" particles and "soft" particles. The background space-time metric depends both on the in-states and on the out-states. We present some model calculations and extensive discussions. In particular, we show, in the context of a toy model, that the $S$-matrix describing soft particles in the hard particle background of a collapsing star is unitary, nevertheless, the spectrum of particles is shown to be approximately thermal. We also conclude that there is an important topological constraint on functional integrals.