The motion of major planets from observations 1769 1988 and some astronomical constants
Abstract
Modern planetary theories may be considered as a realisation of a fourdimensional dynamical reference frame. The existence of secular trends between the dynamical system and the adopted system of the Fundamental Catalogue (as well as between time scales involved) has been studied by discussing planetary observations of different types and by comparison with a numerical theory constructed for the time span 1769 1988. Parameters of the theory were fitted to radar ranging data for 1961 1988 for inner planets and to meridian observations of 18^{th} 20^{th} centuries for outer planets. Then a set of the inner planet optical observations, which includes USNO meridian observations, transits through the solar disk and occultations of fundamental stars are discussed. The main results are the following:
1.
Radar data were used to estimate the time derivativeĠ of the gravitational constantG (in another interpretation, the secular trend between the atomic and dynamic time scales): <MediaObject> <ImageObject FileRef="10569_2004_Article_BF00694392_TeX2GIFE1.gif" Format="GIF" Color="BlackWhite" Type="Linedraw" Rendition="HTML"/> </MediaObject> dot G/G = (0.37 ± 0.45) × 10^{  11} /y. This estimation, being statistically insignificant, gives some physically meaningful restriction toĠ.
2.
From the same data a new estimation of relativistic effects in the motion of Mercury was obtained, which has confirmed the Einstein value of the perihelion advance with the error 0″.06/cy. So in the frame of Einstein's theory the value of solar dynamic oblateness cannot be larger than 2×10^{6}.
3.
The analysis of time behavior of residuals in the inner planet longitudes shows secular trends. It is demonstrated that these trends may be explained by combined action of a linear trenddT of Brouwer's time scale (which is adopted as a standard for reduction of observations before 1959) and the error in Newcomb's value of the constant of precession. From USNO meridian observations fordT the following estimate was obtained:dT=14.5±2.1 sec/cy with the corresponding correction,dp, to Newcomb's precessiondp=0″.46±0″.13/cy. The estimate ofdT is in good agreement with the value ofdT determined from transits of Mercury and Venus through the solar diskdT=12.9±1.3 sec/cy which does not depend on any precession error.
4.
As a byproduct, new accurate ephemerides of the outer planets are obtained over the time interval 1769 1988, the average residuals being presented.
 Publication:

Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy
 Pub Date:
 January 1993
 DOI:
 10.1007/BF00694392
 Bibcode:
 1993CeMDA..55....1K
 Keywords:

 Mars (Planet);
 Planetary Systems;
 Solar Orbits;
 Venus (Planet);
 Astronomical Catalogs;
 Dynamical Systems;
 Gravitational Effects;
 Stellar Occultation;
 Astronomy;
 ephemerides;
 solar system;
 astronomical system;
 reference frame;
 general relativity