The composition of neutral gas in the Local Interstellar Medium can be studied by direct, in situ measuring of interstellar neutral atoms penetrating into interplanetary space. A novel experimental approach for in situ atom detection, which has never been used earlier in space, is proposed. The technique is based on the conversion of neutral atoms to negative ions at a specially prepared sensitive surface. Negative ions are subsequently analyzed and detected in an essentially noise-free, multi-coincidence mode. It is shown that interstellar hydrogen, deuterium, and oxygen atoms can be measured by the proposed technique. The experiment can be performed from a high-apogee Earth-orbiting satellite or from a deep space probe.