Nucleotides and Divalent Cations as Effectors and Modulators of Exocytosis in Permeabilized Rat Mast Cells
The idea that the universal trigger to exocytosis (the terminal step in the secretory process) is an elevation of the cytosol concentration of Ca2+, and that it is dependent on ATP, is no longer tenable. Working with streptolysin-O-permeabilized mast cells (and other myeloid cells) we have shown that non-hydrolysable analogues of GTP can stimulate exocytosis after depletion of Ca2+ (i.e. at concentrations below 10-9M) and ATP. Such Ca2+- and ATP-independent exocytosis is strongly dependent on the presence of Mg2+, and the requirement for Mg2+ declines as the concentration of Ca2+ is brought up to 10-7M. We argue that Ca2+ serves to regulate the binding of guanine nucleotides to GE, a GTP-binding protein that regulates exocytosis through its interaction with CE, a calcium-binding protein which serves as an intracellular pseudo-receptor. The onset of exocytosis, following provision of Ca2+ and guanine nucleotides to the permeabilized cells, is preceded by delays which are sensitive to the order of provision of the two effectors (i.e. Ca2+ and guanine nucleotides), the presence or absence of Mg2+, and the identity of the activating guanine nucleotide. In view of the similarity of these features with the activation kinetics of adenylyl cyclase, we argue that GE behaves as a member of the heterotrimeric class of signal transducing G-proteins such as GS.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B
- Pub Date:
- April 1992