Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Remote Sensing of the Tropical Atmosphere
A partially developed 9-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for the Department of Meteorology at Penn State was completed and tested. Complementary units were added, corrections to both hardware and software were made, and system software was corrected and upgraded. Measurements from this radiometer were used to infer tropospheric temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid water. The various weighting functions at each of the 9 channels were calculated and analyzed to estimate the sensitivities of the brightness temperatures to the desired atmospheric variables. The mathematical inversion problem, in a linear form, was viewed in terms of the theory of linear algebra. Several methods for solving the inversion problem were reviewed. Radiometric observations were conducted during the 1990 Tropical Cyclone Motion Experiment. The radiometer was installed on the island of Saipan in a tropical region. During this experiment, the radiometer was calibrated by using tipping curve and radiosonde data as well as measurements of the radiation from a blackbody absorber. A linear statistical method was first applied for the data inversion. The inversion coefficients in the equation were obtained using a large number of radiosonde profiles from Guam and a radiative transfer model. Retrievals were compared with those from local, Saipan, radiosonde measurements. Water vapor profiles, integrated water vapor, and integrated liquid water were retrieved successfully. For temperature profile retrievals, however, it was shown that the radiometric measurements with experimental noises added no more profile information to the inversion than that which was available from a climatological mean. Although successful retrievals of the geopotential heights were made, it was shown that they were determined mainly by the surface pressure measurements. The reasons why the radiometer did not contribute to the retrievals of temperature profiles and geopotential heights were discussed. A method was developed to derive the integrated water vapor and liquid water from combined radiometer and ceilometer measurements. Under certain assumptions, the cloud absorption coefficients and mean radiating temperature, used in the physical or statistical inversion equation, were determined from the measurements. It was shown that significant improvement on radiometric measurements of the integrated liquid water can be gained with this method.
- Pub Date:
- TROPOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS;
- Physics: Atmospheric Science; Remote Sensing