The arterial pressure of the adult human rarely deviates from normal by more than 10 to 15 percent during each day. To achieve such constancy, the body has a network of pressure control systems. Several are based on neural receptors that respond within seconds to help correct any abnormal pressure. The activities of these systems are followed within minutes by activation of hormonal controllers. Within hours or days, a kidney pressure control system is induced that increases body fluid volume when the pressure falls (or decreases the volume when the pressure rises). This kidney-fluid system is the dominant method of establishing long-term pressure control.