On the Receptivity Problem for Gortler Vortices: Vortex Motions Induced by Wall Roughness
The receptivity problem for Gortler vortices induced by wall roughness is investigated. The roughness is modelled by small amplitude perturbations to the curved wall over which the flow takes place. The amplitude of these perturbations is taken to be sufficiently small for the induced Gortler vortices to be described by linear theory. The roughness is assumed to vary in the spanwise direction on the boundary-layer lengthscale, whilst in the flow direction the corresponding variation is on the lengthscale over which the wall curvature varies. In fact the latter condition can be relaxed to allow for a faster streamwise roughness variation so long as the variation does not become as fast as that in the spanwise direction. The function that describes the roughness is assumed to be such that its spanwise and streamwise dependences can be separated; this enables us to make progress by taking Fourier or Laplace transforms where appropriate. The cases of isolated and distributed roughness elements are investigated and the coupling coefficient which relates the amplitude of the forcing and the induced vortex amplitude is found asymptotically in the small wavelength limit. It is shown that this coefficient is exponentially small in the latter limit so that it is unlikely that this mode can be stimulated directly by wall roughness. The situation at O(1) wavelengths is quite different and this is investigated numerically for different forcing functions. It is found that an isolated roughness element induces a vortex field which grows within a wedge at a finite distance downstream of the element. However, immediately downstream of the obstacle the disturbed flow produced by the element decays in amplitude. The receptivity problem at larger Gortler numbers appropriate to relatively large wall curvature is discussed in detail. It is found that the fastest growing linear mode of the Gortler instability equations has wavenumber proportional to the one-fifth power of the Gortler number. The mode can be related to both inviscid disturbances and the disturbances appropriate to the right-hand branch of the neutral curve for Gortler vortices. The coupling coefficient between this, the fastest growing vortex, and the forcing function is found in closed form.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A
- Pub Date:
- April 1991