Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Design, Fabrication and Characterization
The theory, design, fabrication, and testing of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is explored in depth. The design of the distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors is thoroughly treated and both analytic and numerical approaches for computing the reflectivity are covered. The electrical properties of the DBR mirrors are also considered and graded interfaces are found to be critical in reducing the series voltage drop in the mirrors. Thickness variations due to growth rate uncertainties are considered and the permissible thickness inaccuracies are discussed. Layer thickness variations of several percent can be tolerated without large changes in the threshold current. The growth of VCSELs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is described in detail as is the device processing technology for broad area as well as small area devices. Results from numerous devices are reported. Broad area in-plane lasers were used to characterize the material and determine the internal parameters. Broad area VCSELs were fabricated to determine the characteristics of the VCSEL cavity. Small area VCSELs were fabricated and extensively tested. Measured and derived parameters from small area devices include: threshold current (~0.7 mA), peak output power (>3 mW), maximum operation temperature (>110^ circC), output power at 100^ circC (~0.4 mW), and linewidth (85 MHz). The near field, far field, and polarization characteristics were also measured.
- Pub Date:
- BRAGG REFLECTOR MIRRORS;
- MOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY;
- Engineering: Electronics and Electrical; Physics: Optics