The present article will review recent advances in focused ion beam (FIB) technology. With increasing demands for scale of integration, microfabrication technology is becoming more important and various new microfabrication tools and processing techniques are desired. FIB is one of the promising tools for future microfabrication technology. This provides maskless patterning capability, which is of importance for process simplification, nanofabrication and in the development of in situ vacuum processing. In situ vacuum processing systems are being developed by combining FIB and a molecular beam epitaxy system. Radiation damage may limit applications of FIB. However, it was demonstrated that low energy FIB (< 1 keV) with very high brightness was reached and promising results for low damage processing have been obtained.