Black holes in closed universes
Abstract
Black holes are usually defined in the context of asymptotically flat spacetimes. In order to demonstrate that the black hole and big crunch singularities are essentially part and parcel of the same singularity, cutandpaste methods were used to construct models in which the black hole was embedded in a closed cosmology. The variation of the properties of the model with initial conditions is investigated. The problem, that there is no longer an observer at infinity (as a ready reference to define the black hole), is overcome by using a foliation of constant mean extrinsic curvature to define the preferred observer at every point.
 Publication:

NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N
 Pub Date:
 August 1988
 Bibcode:
 1988STIN...8927610Q
 Keywords:

 Astronomical Models;
 Black Holes (Astronomy);
 Cosmology;
 Universe;
 Mathematical Models;
 Singularity (Mathematics);
 Astrophysics