Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Its Role in Health and Disease
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was first discovered in platelets because they are the principal source of mitogenic activity in whole blood serum for mesenchymal cells in culture. PDGF is ubiquitous in that it can be formed by a large number of normal cells as well as many varieties of transformed cells. However, its expression and biological activity appear to be controlled at a number of different levels. The molecule consists of two peptide chains (termed `A' and `B') and is found as one of at least three possible isoforms, (AB, AA or BB). Each of these isoforms binds to a high-affinity cell-surface receptor that is composed of two different subunits, each of which has specificity for one or the other of the peptide chains of PDGF. The two receptor subunits are present in differing amounts on different cell types, and therefore the capacity of the different isoforms of PDGF to induce mitogenesis depends on the specific PDGF isoform and the relative numbers of receptor subunits present on the responding cell. In addition to inducing cell replication, PDGF elicits a number of intracellular signals related to mitogenesis, is chemotactic, is a vasoconstrictor, activates leukocytes, and modulates extracellular matrix turnover. This growth factor is probably involved in a number of biologically important events including wound repair, embryogenesis and development, and inflammation, leading to fibrosis, atherosclerosis and neoplasia.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B
- Pub Date:
- March 1990