Bioturbation and Manganese Cycling in Hemipelagic Sediments
The activities of infaunal macrobenthos have major influences on the types, rates and distributions of diagenetic reactions involving manganese in relatively carbon-rich deep-sea and nearshore sediments. In some non-sulphidic hemipelagic deposits of the eastern equatorial Pacific (Panama Basin) biogenic reworking drives internal cycles of manganese, which can apparently account for up to ca. 100% of organic carbon oxidation and reduction of O2 supplied (diffusively) to the sea floor. Heterotrophic (carbon-based) manganese reduction is stimulated by simultaneous mixing of reactive organic matter and manganese oxide into suboxic-anoxic deposits. In sulphidic sediments, biogenic reworking must also enhance a lithotrophic pathway (sulphur-based) pathway of manganese reduction by promoting contact of manganese oxides and iron sulphides. Particle reworking dramatically alters the balance between aerobic and anaerobic decomposition pathways, promoting the utilization of O2 in the reoxidaton of reduced metabolites rather than direct oxidation of carbon. Irrigated burrows create microenvironments, which increase manganese reduction-oxidation and deplete Mn2+ from deeper pore waters. This may increase net Mn2+ production rates by removal of metabolites and potential co-precipitants with Mn2+. The occurrence and geometry of manganese oxide encrusted biogenic structures imply specific adaptations of infauna to manganese based microbial activity in hemipelagic sediments like the Panama Basin.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series A
- Pub Date:
- June 1990