Gauge Vortices
Abstract
The properties and interactions of gauge vortices are discussed in a variety of contexts. When quarks and leptons propagate in the background of a grand unified cosmic string, various baryon number violating processes can occur. We argue that, because of the pure gauge field that surrounds the string, the crosssections for these processes are generically enhanced by large factors over the naive, geometric, cross section. This is the cosmic string analog of the CallanRubakov effect. We then investigate the bosonic zero modes of vortices formed in the gauge symmetry breaking G to H. For nonabelian G such zero modes are generic. Vortices render the embedding H subset \G^acedependent, with a dynamically determined subgroup ~ H singlevalued; gauge bosons associated with multi valued generators AharonovBohm scatter off the vortex. Alice strings (H = O(2), ~ H = doubz _2) attract charges, scatter SO(2) "photons," and a loop possesses modes with unlocalizable "Cheshire" charge. Next we consider the physics of discrete gauge symmetries in the continuum. Details of the measurement of discrete charges by the AharonovBohm scattering of vortices are discussed. We take the first steps toward the extension of such discrete gauge symmetries to the nonabelian case. We then consider vortices in (2 + 1) dimensional abelian Higgs theories with an additional Chern Simons term. These vortices behave as anyons, excitations possessing fractional statistics. The P and T violating vortexvortex crosssection is calculated, and it is pointed out that P and T violating effects are the most characteristic signature of the "anyonic superconductors" that have been suggested as theoretical models of the new highT _ c superconductors. Finally, the difficulties of communication between different branches of theoretical physics are briefly considered.
 Publication:

Ph.D. Thesis
 Pub Date:
 January 1990
 Bibcode:
 1990PhDT.......178M
 Keywords:

 COSMIC STRINGS;
 Physics: Elementary Particles and High Energy