Detonation shock dynamics of composite energetic materials
Abstract
A reactionrate equation for a composite energetic material was calibrated from twodimensional steadystate experiment data by using the detonation shock dynamics theory. From experimental detonation velocities and shockfront shapes at different diameters for an ammonium nitratebased emulsion explosive at 1.248 g/cu cm, the relationship between the detonation velocity normal to the shockfront and the shockfront curvature was obtained. By using this relationship and solving the quasi onedimensional Euler equations of motion in a problemconforming intrinsiccoordinate frame obtained from the detonation shock dynamics theory, the reaction rate was determined as a function of pressure and density. The reactionrate equation obtained for this emulsion explosive shows that the rate is very slow and weakly state dependent. These characteristics of the rate indicated that the nonideal behavior of most industrialtype explosives can be attributed to their slow and stateinsensitive rates. By using rate equation, onedimensional initiation experiments (wedge tests) were numerically modeled with a onedimensional Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. The calculated shock trajectories agreed very well with experimental wedge test data. This agreement also suggested that the small shockcurvature asymptotics may be valid even for a relatively large value of the curvature. The calibration method developed in this study is independent of the form of the rate. Realistic rate equations for explosives can be obtained in a very systematic way from twodimensional steadystate experiments.
 Publication:

Ph.D. Thesis
 Pub Date:
 1990
 Bibcode:
 1990PhDT........41L
 Keywords:

 Ammonium Nitrates;
 Detonation Waves;
 Explosives;
 Reaction Kinetics;
 Shock Fronts;
 Composite Materials;
 Differential Equations;
 Emulsions;
 Equations Of Motion;
 Hydrodynamics;
 Rates (Per Time);
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer