Nonequilibrium effects in high speed flows  Modeling and experimentation
Abstract
Nonequilibrium effects in hypersonic flows are examined from a theoretical and experimental point of view. Approximate solutions of the Boltzmann equation obtained by expansion of the species distribution function give modelizations of typical nonequilibrium situations in collisional regimes at Euler and NavierStokes levels. Thus, kinetic models are presented and transport terms are computed. Applications to shocked flows and nozzle expansions are given as well as to nonequilibrium boundarylayer flows. Experimental facilities such as shocktubes and shocktunnels are then considered and their principal defects and limitations, connected to boundarylayer effects, diaphragm opening, shock interactions and nozzle geometry are examined. At last, some recent measurements of vibrational energy and populations are presented.
 Publication:

Hypersonics. Volume 1  Defining the Hypersonic Environment
 Pub Date:
 May 1989
 Bibcode:
 1989hyso....1..429B
 Keywords:

 Computational Fluid Dynamics;
 Flow Velocity;
 Hypersonic Flow;
 Nonequilibrium Flow;
 Boltzmann Transport Equation;
 Boundary Layer Flow;
 Mathematical Models;
 NavierStokes Equation;
 Nozzle Flow;
 Shock Waves;
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer