Space research in Pakistan is conducted by the Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (Suparco). Suparco's programmes consist of the launching of sounding rockets and satellite applications, especially remote sensing and communications. Its long-term goals are to develop communications and remote sensing satellites and to launch lightweight scientific satellites in near-Earth orbits. To train its scientific staff at postgraduate level, Suparco is establishing an Aerospace Institute. The Commission is very active in international forums such as the UN COPUOS, Cospar, IAF and IUCN.