Saxophone Multiphonics: a Scalar Model.
In addition to the sounds generally considered normal for the instrument, the saxophone is capable of producing sounds to which the term multiphonic has been applied, because of the multiple pitches of which they are comprised. These multiphonics are organized according to a conceptual structure characterized as a Scalar Model. The Scalar Model is based on an acoustical and mechanical understanding of the saxophone as a generator of resonating chambers. Multiphonics are defined in terms of fingerings, which in turn are defined in terms of a tube (the theoretical length of the resonating chamber), vents (holes in the tube), and load-keys (additional keys that operate pads below the compass of the tube). The traditional concept of scales is used as a metaphor for the ways in which series of multiphonics can be related. The Scalar Model provides a concise code for identifying multiphonic fingering, and a means of defining and classifying multiphonic scales. The multiphonic code is a formal representation of the three components of a multiphonic fingering (vents, tube, and load). A multiphonic scale is any series of multiphonic fingerings in which one or more components of the code follows a logical sequence. Examples of multiphonic scales are provided, and implications for performers and composers are considered.
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- Music; Education: Music; Physics: Acoustics