Dehydration and hydration reactions in both the downgoing lithosphere and the overlying mantle wedge have been examined in order to understand the role of H2O in the production of magmas at convergent plate boundaries. The subduction of oceanic lithosphere, occurring with increasing pressures and rising temperatures, causes liberation of H2O from the slab. Amphibole, which can be stable to the highest PT conditions among hydrous phases in the slab, decomposes at around 90 km depth. It follows that the subducted lithosphere is essentially anhydrous beneath volcanic arcs lying more than 110 km above the slab and that the supply of slab-derived H2O is not a direct trigger for the production of arc magmas. Instead, the H2O released from downgoing lithosphere reacts with the forearc mantle wedge to crystallize hydrous minerals (serpentine, talc, amphibole, chlorite, and phlogopite). This hydrated peridotite is dragged downward on the slab toward higher PT regions and releases H2O to shallower potential magma source regions in the mantle wedge. Combining experimental data on the stability of serpentine and talc with the thermal structure in the mantle wedge, it is concluded that those minerals decompose beneath the forearc region. On the other hand, high PT experimental and thermodynamic data suggest that dehydration of amphibole and chlorite in the downdragged hydrated peridotite can take place just beneath a volcanic front. Phlogopite in the peridotite decomposes to release H2O at a deeper level (about 200 km). H2O liberated from the hydrated peridotite causes partial melting of overlying mantle wedge peridotites. Along with the migration of H2O through the above processes, subduction components, especially large ion lithophile elements, can be overprinted on the magma source region, which governs the geochemical characteristics of arc magmas.
Journal of Geophysical Research
- Pub Date:
- April 1989
- and Rock Chemistry: Igneous petrology;
- and Rock Chemistry: Experimental mineralogy and petrology;
- Tectonophysics: Dynamics of the lithosphere and mantle;
- Volcanology: Magma migration