An ion interaction model for the volumetric properties of natural waters: Density of the solution and partial molal volumes of electrolytes to high concentrations at 25°C
Literature density data for binary and common ion ternary solutions in the Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO 4-HCO 3-CO3-H 2O system at 25°C have been analysed with Pitzer's ion interaction model, which provides an adequate representation of the experimental data for binary and common ion ternary solutions up to high concentration. This analysis yields Pitzer's interaction parameters for the apparent and partial molal volumes, which are the first derivatives with respect to pressure of the interaction parameters for the free energy. From this information, densities of natural waters as well as partial molal volumes of their solutes can be predicted with good accuracy, as shown by several comparisons of calculated and measured values. It is shown that V̄MX - V̄0mx, the excess partial molal volume of the salt MX, depends more on the type of salt than on the electrolyte itself and that it increases with the charges of the salt components. The influence of concentration and composition on the variation of activity coefficients with pressure and on the partial molal volumes of the salts is discussed, using as an example the partial molal volume of CaSO 4(aq) in solutions of various compositions. The increase of V̄CaSO 4, with ionic strength is very large but is not very different for a NaCl-dominated natural water like the Red Sea lower brine than for a simple NaCl solution. Although the variation of activity coefficients with pressure is usually ignored for moderate pressures, like those found in hydrothermal environments, the present example shows that it can be as large as 30% for a 2-2 salt for a pressure increase from 1 to 500 bars at high ionic strength.