Rough surface propagation and scatter with applications to ground wave remote sensing in an ocean environment
Abstract
Some properties of the vector integral equation representing a general formulation for propagation and scattering from rough surfaces are discussed. It is shown that under certain conditions the equation may be reduced to a Volterra equation of the second kind in the normal component of the surface field for an initially unexcited surface, and hence some confidence may be had in a Neumann series or successive approximation. Using the formulation, the backscattered field solutions at ground wave frequencies and resulting radar cross section solutions derived previously for a model of the ocean surface are presented and discussed. The source assumed is a vertical pulsed dipole. The choice of receiving antenna is left arbitrary. The secondorder cross section contains terms in addition to those provided by existing theories. The additional terms may become very significant in certain Doppler frequency regions and hence required for ocean clutter estimation in the detection of certain types of surface targets. Some of the predictions were verified experimentally.
 Publication:

In AGARD
 Pub Date:
 March 1988
 Bibcode:
 1988sprm.agar.....W
 Keywords:

 Backscattering;
 Mathematical Models;
 Ocean Models;
 Ocean Surface;
 Surface Roughness;
 Wave Propagation;
 Clutter;
 Marine Environments;
 Predictions;
 Radar Cross Sections;
 Remote Sensing;
 Vectors (Mathematics);
 Communications and Radar