Application of Diffraction Grating Theory to Analysis and Fabrication of Waveguide Gratings.
This dissertation includes three separate studies of related waveguide grating phenomena. These studies deal with a numerical improvement of the integral method of diffraction grating theory, the theoretical analysis of waveguide gratings, and fabrication techniques for photoresist grating masks. The first topic addresses the acceleration of the convergence of the integral kernels. To improve the performance of the integral method for calculating diffraction grating efficiencies, the convergence of the integral kernels is studied. A nonlinear sequence transformation, Levin's u-transformation, is successfully applied to accelerate the convergence of the integral kernels. The computer execution time saving is significant. The application details and many numerical examples are given. The second subject is the ray optics theory of waveguide grating analysis. To establish a linkage between the analysis of diffraction gratings and the analysis of waveguide gratings, a new rigorous ray optics theory is developed. It takes into account phase changes on diffraction, multiple diffraction processes, depletion of the incident guided wave, and lateral shifts. A general characteristic equation that determines the waveguide grating attenuation (coupling) coefficient is derived. The symmetry properties of grating diffraction are applied to waveguide grating analysis for the first time. Lateral shifts of optical rays at a periodically corrugated interface similar to the Goos-Haenchen shift at a planar interface are suggested. The third subject is the in situ control of the development of photoresist grating masks. The existing method for monitoring and modeling photoresist grating development are modified and extended to monitoring and modeling photoresist grating mask development. Experimental examples, detailed theoretical considerations, and computer simulations are presented.
- Pub Date:
- December 1988
- Physics: Optics