Depths of large earthquakes determined from longperiod Rayleigh waves
Abstract
The depths and source mechanisms of nine large shallow earthquakes were determined from longperiod (150 to 300 s) Rayleigh waves recorded by the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN) and International Deployment of Accelerometers (IDA) networks. We inverted the data set of complex source spectra for a moment tensor (linear) or a double couple (nonlinear). By solving a least squares problem, we obtained the centroid depth or the extent of the distributed source for each earthquake.
The depths and source mechanisms of large shallow earthquakes determined from longperiod Rayleigh waves depend on the models of source finiteness, wave propagation, and excitation. We tested various models of source finiteness, Q, group velocity, and excitation in the determination of earthquake depths. In order to determine the depth of large earthquakes from longperiod surface waves, sourcefiniteness effects must be corrected using adequate models. The depth estimates obtained using the Q model of Dziewonski and Stein (1982) and the excitation functions computed for the average ocean model of Regan and Anderson (1984) are considered most reasonable. Diziewonski and Steim's Q model represents a good global average of Q determined over a period range of the Rayleigh waves used in this study. Since most of the earthquakes studied here occurred in subduction zones, Regan and Anderson's average ocean model is considered most appropriate. Our depth estimates are in general consistent with the Harvard centroidmoment tensor (CMT) solutions. The centroid depths and their 90% confidence intervals (numbers in parentheses) determined by the Student's t test are ColumbiaEcuador earthquake (December 12, 1979), d=11 km (9, 24 km); Santa Cruz Island earthquake (July 17, 1980), d=36 km (18, 46 km); Samoa earthquake (September 1, 1981), d=15 km (9, 26 km); Playa Azul, Mexico, earthquake (October 25, 1981), d=41 km (28, 49 km); El Salvador earthquake (June 19, 1982), d=49 km (41, 55 km); New Ireland earthquake (March 18, 1983), d=75 km (72, 79 km); Chagos Bank earthquake (November 30, 1983), d=31 km (16, 41 km); Valparaiso, Chile, earthquake (March 3, 1985), d=44 km (15, 54 km); Michoacan, Mexico, earthquake (September 19, 1985), d=24 km (12,34 km).
 Publication:

Journal of Geophysical Research
 Pub Date:
 May 1988
 Bibcode:
 1988JGR....93.4850K
 Keywords:

 Seismology: Earthquake parameters;
 Seismology: Surface waves and free oscillations;
 Information Related to Geographic Region: General or miscellaneous