Ferropigeonite quartz dacites from Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands: Latest differentiates from boninite-forming magma
Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands, consists of dominant Eocene submarine volcanic rocks, comprising boninites, andesites and dacites, and subordinate sedimentary rocks. The dacites occur frequently in breccias and pillows overlying a boninite pillow lava sequence. The boninite pillows are intruded by a multiple dike, in which a core boninite is chilled against outer dacites. A density-stratified chamber may have been capped by a dacite magma. The dacites, which can be divided into quartz dacite and quartz-free dacite, are differentiates from the boninite-forming magmas, because they vary continuously in composition from boninites through andesites. The quartz dacites, corresponding to rhyolite in SiO2, are lower in Na2O and K2O than most orogenic dacites. Some of the dacites are characterized by ferropigeonite (Wo7 16En23 39Fs68-54) phenocrysts and are clearly ferrodacite, producing variable amounts of Fs-rich normative pyroxenes. The relation of SiO2 to total FeO/MgO ratio indicates that many of both types of dacites, with glasses in boninites, are enriched in total FeO despite the strong calc-alkalic affinity of boninites. The crystallization temperature of ferropigeonite with Mg value 30 in a quartz dacite is estimated to be 900° C and that in a quartz-free dacite to be 1050° C, which are unusually high for differentiated silicic rocks. Some Chichi-jima rocks are fresh, having a low ratio of Fe2O3 to FeO. On the basis of the experimental study of magmatic ferric-ferrous equilibria at 1 bar, the oxygen fugacities are calculated as 10-13.6 bars at 900° C for a ferropigeonite quartz dacite and 10-8.9 bars at 1200° C for a boninite with the lowest Fe3+/Fe2+. Both values lie below the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer line. The boninite series volcanic rocks have preserved low oxygen fugacities as well as high temperatures until the latest differentiation stage. The ferropigeonite phenocrysts have crystallized from the dacite magmas under the conditions of moderately high temperatures, very low oxygen fugacities and high total FeO and SiO2 concentrations.