The Bohemian Massif, partly covered by Mesozoic sediments, extends southward some 50 km under the Alpine-Carpathian nappe complex. A major basement spur, devoid of Mesozoic sediments and referred to as the South Bohemian Basement Spur, separates the Jurassic-Cretaceous Upper Austrian Basin from the Lower Austrian Basin. The latter came into evidence during the Middle Jurassic under a tensional setting. Late Jurassic shelf carbonates and basinal shales were deposited under a tectonically quiet regime. Early Cretaceous uplift of the South Bohemian Basement Spur induced the truncation of Jurassic strata along its margins. Transgressive Late Cretaceous elastics overlap the truncated Jurassic series and locally onlap on basement (Upper Austria). Latest Cretaceous to Paleocene foreland deformations may have caused a renewed uplift of the South Bohemian Basement Spur. The Eocene to Late Miocene evolution of the Molasse foredeep went hand in hand with the emplacement of the Alpine-Carpathian nappe system. Differential movements between the eastern Alpine nappes and the Carpathian nappes, combined with tensional stresses in the basement, caused the subsidence of the Vienna Basin.