We study the formalism of the sphaleron approximation to baryon-number violation in the standard model at temperatures near 1 TeV. We investigate small fluctuations of the sphaleron, the competition of large-scale sphalerons with thermal fluctuations, and the damping of the transition rate in the plasma. We find a suppression of the rate due to Landau damping and due to factors arising from zero modes. Our approximations are valid in the regime 2MW(T)<<T<<2MW(T)/αW for models where λ~g2. We find that the rate of baryon-number violation is still significantly larger than the expansion rate of the Universe.
Physical Review D
- Pub Date:
- July 1987
- Applications of electroweak models to specific processes;
- Classical and semiclassical techniques;
- Particle-theory and field-theory models of the early Universe