The main problem in Mediterranean studies is to distinguish between tectonic features of superfisical origin and those reflecting fundamental changes. he distribution of the counter-clockwise and clockwise rotated palaeomagnetic declinations suggests that the central part of the Mediterranean is built up from basically three areas that must have moved independently of each other and of the major plates for shorter or longer times before the Neogene. Within each area, variations in the declination are observed due to age differences on the one hand, but on the other hand as a result of nappe transport, oroclinal bending, etc. Small-scale tectonic movements may have modified the palaeomagnetic directions, but in spite of the relative allochtony the fundamental pattern of the apparent polar movement seems to be preserved. In general, correlation is lacking in the Mediterranean between the orientation of the main trends of oroclinal features and the palaeodeclinations. The palaeomagnetic units of the central Mediterranean do not always coincide with units recognized on geological grounds. Major changes may occur within geological units (e.g. Northern Calcareous Alps), and important tectonic features are crossed without any significant change in the palaeodeclination (e.g., Periadriatic line).