Direct, formal integration (DFI)  A global alternative to FDM/FEM
Abstract
Techniques for using DFI (followed by numerical quadrature and iterative solution of the resulting integral or integrodifferential equations) to solve systems of ordinary differential equations are reviewed, summarizing the approaches taken in 24 studies (mainly in fluid mechanics) from the period 19811985. The advantages of DFI are contrasted with the limitations of finitedifference and finiteelement methods; the principles of DFI are outlined; the 24 studies (including Blasius flows, FalknerSkan flows, mixing layers, laminar and turbulent flows, Howarth pseudoairfoils, heat transfer, and predevelopment and postdevelopment similar flows) are briefly characterized; and possible future applications and extensions of DFI are discussed.
 Publication:

Integral Methods in Science and Engineering
 Pub Date:
 1986
 Bibcode:
 1986imse.proc...62P
 Keywords:

 Computational Fluid Dynamics;
 Finite Difference Theory;
 Finite Element Method;
 Numerical Integration;
 Differential Equations;
 Laminar Flow;
 Mixing Layers (Fluids);
 Partial Differential Equations;
 Turbulent Flow;
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer