Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a member of the CSF family of hormone-like glycoproteins that regulate haematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation1,2, and G-CSF almost exclusively stimulates the colony formation of granulocytes from committed precursor cells in semi-solid agar culture2. Recently, Nomura et al.3 have established a human squamous carcinoma cell line (designated CHU-2) from a human oral cavity tumour which produces large quantities of CSF constitutively, and the CSF produced by CHU-2 cells has been purified to homogeneity from the conditioned medium. We have now determined the partial amino-acid sequence of the purified G-CSF protein, and by using oligonucleotides as probes, have isolated several clones containing G-CSF complementary DNA from the cDNA library prepared with messenger RNA from CHU-2 cells. The complete nucleotide sequences of two of these cDNAs were determined and the expression of the cDNA in monkey COS cells gave rise to a protein showing authentic G-CSF activity. Furthermore, Southern hybridization analysis of DNA from normal leukocytes and CHU-2 cells suggests that the human genome contains only one gene for G-CSF and that some rearrangement has occurred within one of the alleles of the G-CSF gene in CHU-2 cells.