Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) of implanted materials, particularly of cross-sectioned specimens, allows direct observation and quantification of the microstructure (crystallinity, dislocations, cavities, and precipitates) and direct measurement of concentration profiles at < 10 nm resolution. Depth distributions of defects and composition are obtained without recourse to energy-depth conversions (required for ion backscattering) or to sputtering rates (required for Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy). The work reviewed covers metals, ceramics, and semiconductors implanted over a wide temperature range (77 to ~ 1000 K) for studies of radiation damage response or near-surface modification. The observed depth distribution of damage structure and composition is often different from that predicted by computer codes. Most of the differences can be explained if one accounts for electronic stopping powers that include "z-oscillations", stresses generated by swelling, or point defect migration (diffusional spreading) and atom recoil effects.