Analysis of diffusion in metals based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Abstract
A general form of the first Fick law for diffusion in singlephase metallic alloys is obtained by the methods of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Because the vacancies are treated as an independent component, the reactions for the creation of vacancies are considered. The electrons are also treated as a component, and therefore an internally generated electric field appears in the generalized equation, in addition to the usual externally applied electric field. Similarly, two types of temperature gradient are considered; consequently, even in nominally 'isothermal' diffusion a gradient in temperature may exist. The power of an analysis based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics is shown by the fact that the resulting equations have produced solutions to three previously unresolved problems.
 Publication:

Journal of Materials Science
 Pub Date:
 January 1986
 DOI:
 10.1007/BF01144719
 Bibcode:
 1986JMatS..21..188G
 Keywords:

 Alloys;
 Diffusion Theory;
 Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics;
 Electric Fields;
 Ficks Equation;
 Reaction Kinetics;
 Temperature Gradients;
 Vacancies (Crystal Defects);
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer