a Study of the Tungsten (001) Surface Using Low Energy Electron Diffraction and Other Electron Spectroscopies.
The properties of the clean Tungsten (001) surfaces (both (1 x 1) and reconstructed (SQRT.(2 x SQRT.(2)R45(DEGREES) phases) and the effects of the common absorbates Hydrogen and Oxygen have been investigated using the techniques of Low Energy Electron Diffraction, Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Characteristic Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy. The origins of features observed in Characteristic Energy Loss Spectra, very low energy (<10 eV) Secondary Electron Emission spectra and low energy (<40 eV) Auger spectra, are deduced and compared with recent relevant independently obtained theoretical data and with other, sometimes conflicting, analyses. The use of these spectroscopies as monitors of surface cleanliness is evaluated. In particular a previously unreported emission, observed during Oxygen adsorption, is attributed to an Auger transition involving the Oxygen 2s and 2p adsorbate levels. Experimental conventional LEED and improved resolution very low energy intensity versus energy spectra are compared with Dynamical spectra, calculated using the program package of M. A. Van Hove and S. Y. Tong or calculated by R. O. Jones using a previously determined saturated image barrier, within a spin dependent scattering model, respectively. Structural information about the clean (1 x 1), clean reconstructed (SQRT.(2 x SQRT.(2)R45(DEGREES) and Hydrogen saturated (1 x 1)-H surfaces have been obtained via visual comparison or R factor (E. Zanazzi and F. Jona) analysis of the conventional data. The conventional methods of LEED Intensity data collection are assessed and procedures to improve experimental reproducibility are proposed. From the analysis of the improved resolution data, and with reference to the corresponding set of very low energy electron reflection data also obtained for comparison, conclusions are made about the origins of fine structure observed in the experimental profiles and about the W(001) surface order before and after the temperature dependent reconstruction and during Hydrogen adsorption. Further information about the clean W(001)-(SQRT.(2 x SQRT.(2)R45(DEGREES) surface, including the clean surface transition temperature, the mode of reconstruction, and structural information is determined from the analyses of the LEED intensity pattern and temperature dependence. In particular it is found that the reconstruction involves both vertical and horizontal components of atomic displacement and is dependent upon the surface topography and defect structure. All results are evaluated in comparison with other relevant independent experimental or theoretical analyses, where possible.
- Pub Date:
- Physics: Electricity and Magnetism