A brief outline of the nature and distribution of the major Archaean terranes of central eastern Brazil is given in the first section of this paper. Integration of presently available data indicates that the entire Archaean gold mineralization of some economic importance is restricted to greenstone-type lithostratigraphic sequences such as those occurring in the Sao Francisco craton and the Jequie and Goias mobile belts of central eastern Brazil. This mineralization associated with greenstone belts consists of two different genetical types: (1) a stratiform syngenetic type intimately associated with its host rocks and (2) a structurally controlled epigenetic type related to hydrothermal solutions. The study of the former type includes a detailed description of the major gold mines of the Iron Quadrangle where the gold mineralization is closely associated with various types of banded iron formations (BIF), providing clear geological and geochemical evidence for their syngenetic exhalative volcano-sedimentary origin. The epigenetic type is best exemplified by the orebodies of the “Faixa Weber” within the mafic metavolcanic unit of the Rio Itapicuru belt and other small gold occurrences such as those present in the Crixas belt.