Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus from Sweden and Newfoundland was studied in laboratory culture. Zoids from unilocular sporangia developed into dioecious microscopic filamentous gametophytes which produced uniseriate plurilocular gametangia in low temperatures (0 to 8 °C). Zygotes and unfused isogametes gave rise to filamentous protonemata on which parenchymatous macroscopic sporophytes were formed. Isolates from Sweden and Newfoundland were interfertile. Although formed in culture, genetically unisexual sporophytes were not detected in nature. Female gametes of D. foeniculaceus produced a sexual pheromone. It was identified as finavarrene, which is also known as the sperm attractant in Ascophyllum nodosum.