Continuum model for simultaneous chemical reactions and mass transport in hydrothermal systems
Abstract
A timespace continuum model for transport of hydrothermal fluids in porous media is presented which provides for simultaneous, reversible and irreversible chemical reactions involving liquids, gases and minerals. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions are incorporated in the model in a similar fashion through source/sink terms added to the continuity equation. The model provides for moving reaction fronts through surfaces of discontinuity across which occur jump discontinuities in the various field variables satisfying generalized RankineHugoniot relations. Reversible reactions including aqueous complexing, oxidationreduction reactions, mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions and adsorption are explicitly accounted for by imposing chemical equilibrium constraints in the form of mass action equations on the transport equations. This is facilitated by partitioning the reacting species into primary and secondary species corresponding to a particular representation of the stoichiometric reaction matrix referred to as the canonical representation. The transport equations for the primary species combined with homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria result in a system of coupled, nonlinear algebraic/partial differential equations which completely describe the evolution of the system in time. Spatially separated phase assemblages are accommodated in the model by altering the set of independent variables across surfaces of discontinuity. Constitutive relations for the fluid flux corresponding to primary species are obtained describing transport of both neutral and charged species by advection, dispersion and diffusion. Numerical implementation of the transport equations is considered and both explicit and implicit finite difference algorithms are discussed. Analytical expressions for the change in porosity and permeability with time are obtained for an assemblage of minerals reacting reversibly with a hydrothermal fluid under quasisteady state conditions. Fluid flow is described by Darcy's law employing a phenomenological expression relating permeability and porosity. Finally an expression for the local retardation factor of solute species is derived for the case of advective transport in a single spatial dimension which accounts for the effects of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria including adsorption on the rate of advance of a reaction front. The condition for the formation of shock waves is given.
 Publication:

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
 Pub Date:
 March 1985
 DOI:
 10.1016/00167037(85)901723
 Bibcode:
 1985GeCoA..49..779L