Various aspects of the electron-LO-phonon interaction effects on the electronic properties of a single two-dimensional electron layer (as occurring, for example, in artificially structured single quantum wells or heterojunctions made of III-V or II-VI semiconducting materials) are discussed theoretically. In particular, perturbation theory is carried to the second order in the coupling constant to obtain the two-dimensional polaron energy in the weak-coupling limit. Intermediate coupling (the so-called Lee-Low-Pines theory) and strong coupling theories for the two-dimensional polaron problem are developed and interpolation (Padé approximations) formulae valid for arbitrary coupling are derived. Effects of the band non-parabolicity and of the free-carrier screening on the weak-coupling theory are discussed. The real and the imaginary parts of the two-dimensional polaron self-energy are obtained in a many-body perturbation calculation. Comparison with the known three-dimensional results is made wherever possible, showing that the electron-LO-phonon interaction effects are substantially enhanced in confined structures. Explicit formulas valid for two-dimensional systems are given for various polaron parameters like the binding energy, the effective mass, the scattering rate, the average phonon density in the polaron cloud, etc.