The Upper Proterozoic ophiolite complex of Bou Azzer, Morocco, includes ultramafic rocks, cumulate gabbros, sheeted dykes, pillow lavas and diorite-quartz diorite intrusions and an overlying volcano-sedimentary sequence. The gabbroic cumulates, basaltic flows and dykes have compositions similar to recent ocean-floor rocks (N- and/or T-type). Among other features, they have comparable light REE-depleted patterns and relations of Ti-Zr and La-Nb. Although fractional crystallization played an important role in the evolution of these rocks, the large variations in their chemical compositions require generation from a heterogeneous upper mantle source and/or by a dynamic partial melting process. Diorites, quartz diorites and the volcanic rocks of the overlying sequence are calc-alkaline, genetically unrelated to the tholeiitic suite and indicative of an island arc setting. A possible tectonic model for the ophiolite complex is a marginal basin just behind a still active island arc.