Moderate temperature rechargeable sodium batteries
Cells utilizing the organic electrolyte, NaI in triglyme, operated at approx. 130 C with Na(+) - intercalating cathodes. However, their rate and stability were inadequate. NaAlCl4 was found to be a highly useful electrolyte for cell operation at 165-190 C. Na(+) intercalating chalcogenides reacted with NaAlCl4 during cycling to form stable phases. Thus, VS2 became essentially VS2Cl, with reversible capacity of approx 2.8 e(-)/V, and a mid-discharge voltage of approx 2.5V and 100 deep discharge cycles were readily achieved. A positive electrode consisting of VCl3 and S plus NaAlCl4 was subjected to deep-discharge cycles 300 times and it demonstrated identity with the in-situ-formed BSxCly cathode. NiS2 and NiS which are not Na(+)-intercalating structures formed highly reversible electrodes in NaAlCl4. The indicated discharge mechanism implies a theoretical capacity 4e(-)/Ni for NiS2 and 2e(-)/Ni for NiS. The mid-discharge potentials are, respectively, 2.4V and 2.1V. A Na/NiS2 cell cycling at a C/5 rate has exceeded 500 deep discharge cycles with 2.5e(-)/Ni average utilization. A 4 A-hr nominal capacity prototype Na/NiS2 cell was tested at 190 C. It was voluntarily terminated after 80 cycles. Further development, particularly of cathode structure and hardware should produce a battery capable of at least 50-W-hr/lb and more than 1000 cycles.
- Pub Date:
- July 1983
- Electric Batteries;
- Battery Chargers;
- Discharge Coefficient;
- Electronics and Electrical Engineering