Upper limits on the isotropic gravitational radiation background from pulsar timing analysis.
Abstract
A pulsar and the earth may be thought of as end masses of a freemass gravitational wave antenna in which the relative motion of the masses is monitored by observing the Doppler shift of the pulse arrival times. Using timing residuals from PSR 1133 + 16, 1237 + 25, 160400, and 204516, an upper limit to the spectrum of the isotropic gravitational radiation background has been derived in the frequency band 4 x 10 to the 9th to 10 to the 7th Hz. This limit is found to be S(E) = 10 to the 21st fcubed ergs/cu cm Hz, where S(E) is the energy density spectrum and f is the frequency in Hz. This would limit the energy density at frequencies below 10 to the 8th Hz to be 0.00014 times the critical density.
 Publication:

The Astrophysical Journal
 Pub Date:
 February 1983
 DOI:
 10.1086/183954
 Bibcode:
 1983ApJ...265L..39H
 Keywords:

 Background Radiation;
 Cosmology;
 Gravitational Waves;
 Pulsars;
 Time Measurement;
 Doppler Effect;
 Gravitation Theory;
 Gravitational Wave Antennas;
 Isotropy;
 Limits (Mathematics);
 Perturbation Theory;
 Power Spectra;
 Spectral Energy Distribution;
 Stochastic Processes;
 Astrophysics