The standards currently recommended for use in space travel were perhaps the first risk derived recommendations for dose limitations developed for quasi-occupational circumstances. They were based on data, considerations, and philosophy existing prior to 1970 and considered carcinogenesis primarily. In the intervening twelve years, not only has radiation risk information improved markedly but considerations relating to risk in general have become better known.The earlier recommendations have been examined with respect to changes in risk estimation and it is noted that the same philosophy used today, would probably lead to different dose limitations. However, other philosophies might be used; in particular a comparison of risks between terrestrial occupational radiation circumstances and also with fatal accident rates in a range of industries can be made and might be used in a modified philosophy with respect to risks from carcinogenesis. Developments have also taken place with respect to the knowledge of the biological effects of HZE particles but whether these effects are limiting as compared with radiation induced carcinogenesis is not yet clear. More studies on the effects of HZE particles, now becoming available, are needed. It is recommended that an in depth re-examination be undertaken of the biological effectiveness of space radiations and the philosophy of dose limitations in comparison with other risks.