Dynamics of Defects in X-Ray Irradiated Alkali Chloride Crystals Studied by Positron Annihilation.
This thesis reports first data on the time dependence of positron-electron annihilation characteristics in single crystals of the homologous series NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl after large doses of x irradiation. A new instrument, the (pi)-radian coincidence apparatus (PICA), recorded the coincidence count rate P of the two 0.5-MeV annihilation (gamma) rays emerging 180(DEGREES) apart from the crystal during isothermal and isochronal heating conditions. In most crystals one observes an initial rapid increase of P to a maximum followed by a slow decline toward the coincidence count rate corresponding to the pre-irradiation state of the crystal. Positron-annihilation data were completed by independent measurements of the optical absorption in KCl and NaCl crystals after various durations of isothermal heating. Absorption spectrophotometry revealed enhancement of the M band in KCl, of the R and N bands in NaCl, at the expense of the F band during the interval of increasing P. The PICA results are consistent with the interpretation that positrons are trapped by radiation-induced color centers in which they annihilate with a higher P than in the bulk of the crystal. The dynamics associated with the incipient rise of P during the initial heating period is attributable to the agglomeration of F centers into aggregate centers. The rise times of P give access to the diffusion rates for agglomeration. At equal temperatures, we observe a strong dependence of the rate of defect diffusion on the size of the cation. For example, it is 100 times faster in CsCl than in NaCl at 120(DEGREES)C. The data must be corrected for the effects of decoloration of the crystals by the positrons during the measurements. Activation energies for defect diffusion annealing are extracted. They test the hypotheses underlying the theories of macroscopic transport properties in these crystals in that they are indicative of the dominant microscopic lattice processes and their dependence on the crystal composition.
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- Physics: Condensed Matter