The complete nucleotide sequence of human serum albumin mRNA has been determined from recombinant cDNA clones and from a primer-extended cDNA synthesis on the mRNA template. The sequence is composed of 2078 nucleotides, starting upstream from a potential ribosome binding site in the 5' untranslated region. It contains all the translated codons and extends into the poly(A) at the 3' terminus. Part of the translated sequence codes for a hydrophobic prepeptide, Met-Lys-Trp-Val-Thr-Phe-Ile-Ser-Leu-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe-Ser-Ser-Ala-Tyr-Ser, followed by a basic propeptide, Arg-Gly-Val-Phe-Arg-Arg. These signal peptides are absent from mature normal serum albumin and, so far, have not been identified in their nascent state in humans. A remaining 1755 nucleotides of the translated mRNA sequence code for 585 amino acids, which are in agreement, with few exceptions, with the published amino acid sequence for human serum albumin. The mRNA sequence verifies and refines the repeating homology in the triple-domain structure of the serum albumin molecule.