Limits of Stability for an AreaPreserving Polynomial Mapping
Abstract
The HenonHeiles mappingx'=x+a(yy ^{3}), y'=ya(x'x'^{3}) has been studied, with the aim of finding where the unstable regions of the (x, y) plane are. When this mapping is put into the normal form, it is found to be a typical twist mapping. The criteria of Moser (1971) are used to obtain an upper limit to the size of a stable region around the origin, and this limit decreases to zero as the value of the parameter ‘a’ increases toward 2.0. However, direct calculation fora=1.99 shows that there is a fairly large region insidex=0.412,y=0, from which escape from near the outer boundary requires at least 160 mappings. The region of high stability thus appears to be much larger than any region of absolute stability predicted by the KAM theorem. A general survey has been made of instability regions for the parameter valuea=1.0, this survey having been carried out to the extent which is allowed by a computer with 18decimalplace accuracy. First, for all thexaxis fixed points (of the above mapping) deemed to be representative and significant, both the locations and variational matrix traces have been calculated. (The latter show whether the fixed point is elliptic or hyperbolic.) Ifn is the number of mappings andk is the number of circuits around the origin, then the listing (Table IV) is for fractionsk/n between 1/6 and 1/22, inclusive. (This covers the range 0≦x<0.96, withx=0 the fixed point forn=6,k=1). Escape toward infinity can be rapid, with less than 200 mappings necessary to reach the vicinity of then=1 fixed points (atx=±1,y=0 andx=0,y=±1) from outer regions of the (x, y) plane, such as for x>0.93,y=0. In this case, the unstable regions may be tongues encircling the origin. However, as the distance from the origin is decreased, the tongues can be replaced by exceedingly fine threads rapidly becoming less than say 10^{16} in thickness. Such a thread issues fromx=0.905468199,y=0 and requires of the order of 40 000 mappings to escape. It does so by spiralling about the origin and penetrating through several series of loops associated with various fixed points at successively greater (absolute) values ofx(y=0). The region between this thread and the origin is therefore highly stable. Practical stability of a region may be regarded as attained when the region is interior to a series of loops for which the trace of the variational matrix is close to 2.0. This occurs forn=53,k=4, with fixed point atx=0.819786,y=0 and Trace=2.0000 0004. If an invariant curve does in fact exist, then one must be able to show that the outward spiralling from a given series of loops is brought to a halt at some stage. This does not occur in the region where direct computation is possible, as we show in this article, and it remains to be seen under what conditions it can take place.
 Publication:

Celestial Mechanics
 Pub Date:
 November 1982
 DOI:
 10.1007/BF01243740
 Bibcode:
 1982CeMec..28..295B
 Keywords:

 Computer Techniques;
 Optimization;
 Polynomials;
 Systems Stability;
 Transformations (Mathematics);
 Variational Principles;
 Eigenvalues;
 Matrices (Mathematics);
 Theorems;
 Physics (General)