Wind structure and small-scale wind variability in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the November 1980 energy budget campaign
Between November 6 and December 1, 1980, a series of rocket observations obtained from two sites in northern Scandinavia as part of the Energy Budget Campaign indicated that significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure were present and were noted to coincide with different geomagnetic conditions, i.e., quiet and enhanced. This series of observations represents for the first time the largest amount of data ever gathered at high latitudes over such a short interval of time. It is observed that prior to November 16, the meridional wind component above 60 kilometers was found to be positive (southerly) while the magnitude of the zonal wind component increased with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly) and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was noted to decrease with altitude. Time-sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind show the presence of vertically propagating waves which suggest gravity wave activity. These waves increase in wavelength from 3-4 kilometers near 40 kilometers to over 12 kilometers near 80 kilometers. The observational techniques employed at Andoya, Norway, and ESRANGE in Sweden, consisted of chaff foil, chemical trails, inflatable spheres, and parachutes.