Thermoluminescent Mechanisms in Calcium Sulphate Doped with Dysprosium.
Thermoluminescent (TL) mechanisms in CaSO(,4):Dy caused by ionizing irradiation are investigated. Influences of the background impurities on the structure of the glow curve are determined and are correlated with known electron spin resonance (ESR) results. These are combined with fading studies that determine the TL process as bimolecular or monomolecular and the order of the kinetics involved. The TL emission spectrum is determined for all temperature regions of the TL emission to 400(DEGREES)C; optical absorption (OA) in the visible provides information on the valence state of the Dy ion. Photo stimulated transfer of TL (PTTL) helps determine the influence of traps deeper than 400(DEGREES)C, while studies of CaSO(,4):Dy in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) operated in the cathodoluminescent (CL) mode provide information on processes occurring during electron bombardment and on the distribution of Dy in CaSO(,4). The information from these studies is combined to form comprehensive models of the TL mechanisms responsible for the TL glow peaks.(,). The glow peak occurring between 130(DEGREES)C and 260(DEGREES)C, usually designated as the dosimetric peak, was determined to be the result of two primary processes. In the first mechanism, the SO(,3)('-) radical recombines with an oxygen interstitial (O(,i)('-)) associated with the Dy('3+) in charge compensation. The recombination energy is given up as TL. In the second mechanism, it is concluded that divalent Dy release electrons to the conduction band in a non-radiative process. The liberated electron recombines with a hole center at a remote SO(,4)(' -) site. The recombination energy is either transferred to trivalent Dy, which emits TL, or this energy causes the (SO(,4)('-))* to disassociate and form an SO(,3)(' -) and an O(,i)('-). These defects are thought to recombine at about 300(DEGREES)C. In the low temperature region (room temperature to 130(DEGREES)C), the monovalent cation, particularly Na('+) acting as charge compensation for the trivalent Dy, stabilizes the SO(,4)('-) radical and the SO(,2)(' -) radical produced during irradiation. These are determined to be monomolecular type defect comples. The TL mechanisms proposed for the dosimetric region (130(DEGREES)C - 260(DEGREES)C) and the low temperature region (RT - 130(DEGREES)C) are those most consistent with all the results of the various methods of research.
- Pub Date:
- Physics: Radiation